History[ edit ] Early prototypes of reservoir pens[ edit ] An early historical mention of what appears to be a reservoir pen dates back to the 10th century. According to Al-Qadi al-Nu’man d. Leonardo’s journals contain drawings with cross-sections of what appears to be a reservoir pen that works by both gravity and capillary action. Historians also took note of the fact that the handwriting in the inventor’s surviving journals is of a consistent contrast throughout, rather than the characteristic fading pattern typical of a quill pen caused by expending and re-dipping. While no physical item survives, several working models were reconstructed in by artist Amerigo Bombara that have since been put on display in museums dedicated to Leonardo. Klein and Henry W. Wynne received US patent in for an ink chamber and delivery system in the handle of the fountain pen European reservoir models[ edit ] Deliciae physico-mathematicae, The fountain pen was available in Europe in the 17th century, and is shown by contemporary references. In Deliciae Physico-Mathematicae a magazine , German inventor Daniel Schwenter described a pen made from two quills.
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Enter Characters from Left: The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.
Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.
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Colorless is preferred over the term “clear” or “white” glass since the former term refers more accurately to the transparency of the glass not its color, i. Colorless glass was a goal of glass manufacturers for centuries and was difficult to produce because it required the use of virtually impurity-free materials. Venetian glass makers produced their crystallo as early as the 15th century and glass makers in 18th century England made what was known as “flint” glass from virtually pure quartz rock calcined flint which was simply called “flint” Hunter Improved chemistry and glass making methods of the late 19th and early 20th century allowed for process efficiencies that made colorless glass easier and much cheaper to produce with the use of various additives in the glass mixture.
The term flint glass was and still is used somewhat erroneously by glassmakers to describe colorless glass that is made with low iron sand. It is, however, not true flint glass.
Antique Ink Bottles
Within ten years he had enlarged the factory three times, built a china works, taken on the largest and most gifted group of artists in the Potteries, and developed for Doulton a reputation for craftsmanship and artistry still identified with Royal Doulton today. There follows a selection of the backstamps most commonly used on Doulton Burslem wares, and some further hints on dating. The information is taken by permission from “The Doulton Burslem Wares” by Desmond Eyles, a compulsory work of reference for any collector of Doulton wares see back page.
The reference numbers for the Doulton Burslem marks have been prefixed by the letter ‘B’ to distinguish them from those also numbered 1 and up in the list of Lambeth marks given in The Doulton Lambeth Wares. Several of these were adopted after by Doulton and remained in use for about twenty years. The following are two typical examples found on the patterns Rouen and Kew.
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They examined the writing on personal documents of an Egyptian soldier named Horus as well as documents from the Tebtunis temple library. These papyri fragments are stored in the Papyrus Carlsberg Collection at the University of Copenhagen. Fragment from the Tebtunis temple library in the Papyrus Carlsberg Collection. University of Copenhagen Reflecting on the results, Egyptologist and first author of the study Thomas Christiansen from the University of Copenhagen said that there was a great deal of variation in the composition: This makes it impossible to produce maps of ink signatures that otherwise could have been used to date and place papyri fragments of uncertain provenance.
Papyrus became increasingly important with the development of writing, since papyrus was much easier to carry around than stone. Papyrus continued to be in use up until the 11th century AD. Public Domain Papyrus was created by using the pith of the plant and it served many purposes in ancient Egypt, such as in the manufacture of boats, mats, rope, sandals and baskets. The researchers believe that knowledge of the composition of ink used on papyri will be helpful in conservation and aid museums in their decisions regarding the storage of ancient Egyptian papyri.
The study was published in Scientific Reports.
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Guide to Real Photo Postcards This guide is meant to aid the collector in identifying and dating real photo postcards, and to act as a reminder that it is impossible to do so with great accuracy. Although real photo postcards were made in a variety of ways, they hold one identifiable feature in common. The tonalities of photos are completely continuous to the eye producing true greys, for they are created by the reaction of individual photosensitive molecules to light rather than the transfer of ink from a plate.
In printed images the grey areas are usually made up of black marks that are spaced to create the optical illusion of greys. Though most of us today are familiar with the concept of photo grain, this is mostly because we have experienced very large prints made from small 35mm negatives.
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Just so you know, this comment makes you sound very arrogant and intolerant yourself. Anonymous Just so you know, this comment makes you sound arrogant and intolerant of my ass. It is deeply offended, so please kiss and make up. How is that not arrogance? You defend Richard Dawkins much like christians defend God. However different strokes for different folks, so how about we all just try to get along instead eh?
Forensic Laboratory – Analysis, Consulting & Investigations
Thin Stamp s A. But, we have 2 problems. There is no official track record of the stamps used by Zildjian. The proces of stamping wasn’t very accurate and the imprint varies. So, it is difficult to exactly determine the period that certain stamps were used.
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History[ edit ] Lewis Edson Waterman’s entry into fountain pen manufacturing has only recently been properly researched. Waterman was working as a pen salesman in New York for a new company founded in the spring of by a volatile inventor named Frank Holland. Holland abandoned his company after only six weeks; Waterman stepped in and took over, fitting the pens with a simplified feed of his own design. Despite later company literature that depicts Lewis E.
Waterman as a golden-hearted innocent, all evidence indicates that he was a tough, savvy, and innovative businessman. In the L. Waterman company developed the “spoon Feed” system which prevented overflow of ink, which also led to the company receiving the gold medal of excellence at the “Exposition Universelle” in Paris in Waterman’s death in that the company took off. Under the leadership of Waterman’s nephew, Frank D. Waterman, the Waterman Pen Company expanded aggressively worldwide. While Waterman introduced its share of innovations, the company’s main selling point was always quality and reliability.
In Waterman patented their first permanently attached pen clip, allow a pen to be held directly in a pocket. In Waterman released their first retractable-nib “safety” pen. As the 20th century wore on, Waterman’s conservatism allowed its younger and more innovative competitors to gain market share—Parker, Sheaffer , and Wahl-Eversharp, in particular.
A.T. Cross Writing Instruments & Refills
This website has examples of many of the different Esterbrook models as well as information on the Esterbrook company, pens for sale, and repair resources. Consider this site a work in progress, and if you don’t find what you’re looking for, check back at a later date and I may have put it up. I have been collecting pens since and currently own and operate Anderson Pens with my wife Lisa in Appleton, WI where we have a physical storefront with all sorts of pens, paper, and ink.
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After the government blocked it, 7iber went from dot. Although the government said it would look into amendments, there were no changes to the licensing law, so the citizen media platform noted for engaging with its readers on political, social, cultural, and economic issues was left with no other choice to reach its main audience inside the country. Applicants can get a free license on the same day. That person must be a member of the Jordan Press Association , which creates a problem for countless online news sites since the licensing rule requires them to have full-time editors-in-chief, who become legally liable, and who have been association members for at least four years.
Screen shot of government directive to news website editors “All the websites don’t have full-timers,” said Ejeilat. In some cases, the editor-in-chief works with the site and works somewhere else, and in some cases, the editor-in-chief doesn’t even know what the website is; it’s just a name. Or, as Jordanians in the know say, the government reverts to type, with selective and arbitrary implementation In October , the Jordan Press Association said nobody should collaborate with what it termed “imposters,” and urged the prime minister not to invite “non-members” to cover official events.
Structure of the Jordan Press Association’s General Assembly courtesy 7iber The association’s general assembly is made up of 64 percent members from government-run media and 36 percent members in private media as well as independents or freelancers – all of whom must get the official blessing. The challenge for 7iber was finding an editor who was a member of the association, who was on the same wavelength, who shared the website’s values, and who would be part of the team.
Some journalists declined the offer, saying it was too much responsibility. The site’s content is published in Arabic and English. Screen shot of 7iber’s home page 7iber eventually found an editor.
7iber’s Virtual Ink Runs Again
I’ve used the Internet to meet new people pretty consistently since then, so I’m perhaps more of an expert than most. Online dating makes your awareness of your own preferences crystal clear; when you’re scanning face after face you notice you tend to get drawn to ones that share similar features. It also makes you question who is attracted to you, and why. As a tattooed woman, I’ve definitely been on the receiving end of the types of messages that get sent to us online.
That somehow my tattoos alone make me attractive.
Welcome to , your online source for information on Esterbrook fountain pens. As a vintage fountain pen collector I have narrowed my interests and collection to those of the Esterbrook pen company of Camden, NJ and later, Cherry Hill, NJ.
Hallmarks and other markings 4. Date codes on Parker Pens Updated Oct In mid Parker began marking most pens and pencils with a date code, both the barrel and the nibs were marked, but lacking a date code doesn’t necessarily mean that the pen was made pre , since many imprints have been worn off with use. The first date codes, found for example on the Vacumatics, consists of two digits, the first one denoting the quarter of production, the second denoting the production year.
Hence a “47” marking on a ‘s pen indicate that the pen was produced in the fourth quarter of , not , which is a common misconception. In the second quarter of this system was however changed to save production time, and a new date code, using a system of dots, was adopted. The stamp initially had three dots and for each quarter one dot was filed down leaving none for the fourth quarter. Since production was overlapping examples exist with either the imprint 28 or.
Also, since this coding system extended over a decade, a pen marked 38 could be produced the third quarter either in or In a new system for the date coding was introduced where the two digits only indicated the year, not the quarter hence “50” means made in , this system was used in the US until and in Canada a few years longer..
It has been assumed that Parker began marking some of their pens on the trim or cap bands to allow for dating in Using the words “Quality pen”, one letter per year, followed by a quarter marker, allowing for dating within a ten year span.
Computers & Electronics Reviews
History[ edit ] Founded by Suroosh Alvi , Gavin McInnes and Shane Smith ,  the magazine was launched in as the Voice of Montreal with government funding, and the intention of the founders was to provide work and a community service. Following the relocation, the magazine quickly developed a reputation for provocative and politically incorrect content. Under Szalwinski’s ownership, a few retail stores were opened in New York City and customers could purchase fashion items that were advertised in the magazine.
However, due to the end of the dot-com bubble , the three founders eventually regained ownership of the Vice brand, followed by the closure of the stores.
Health Canada can take appropriate compliance action if a product presents a hazard to the health or safety of Canadians. Mandatory notification: Manufacturers must disclose all cosmetic ingredients to Health Canada through a Cosmetic Notification Form.
Contact Ink Dating There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents: Ink Aging Approach Various methods have been published to measure aging processes that occur in ink on documents. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr.
Cantu in the s. Ink Availability Approach The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc. Ink Comparison Approach 3. Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file document.
Comparison of the contested document to other similar documents from the same time frame — If other similar documents from the same source and pertinent time frame are available for comparison with the contested document, then: The presence of the same printing defects on the contested document and comparison documents or the same patterns of trash marks or incidental marks on photocopies or laser prints may yield valuable information concerning the dating of the contested document.
The physical optical and chemical examinations of writing inks, as well as other materials used in the production of documents paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, typewriter ribbon ink, carbon paper ink, stamp pad ink, etc. The order of execution of certain elements of a document Writing ink sequencing — Examining intersections areas where two or more pen lines cross to determine the order of writing it may prove that a particular entry was added at a later time Sequencing of indented impressions and writings — Examining intersections areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations may determine the order of writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time.
Paper folds — It is often possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was written before or after the paper was folded.
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Order Form Carter’s Ink Cubes This is the place to be for old ink bottles from the early s up to the s. Many of the bottles we have listed are strictly for the ink bottle collector. We also have a number of older ink bottles that still contain useable fountain pen inks which many fountain pen aficionados prefer over modern day inks.
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The Ethic of Reciprocity the Golden Rule suggests that one should not intentionally cause unnecessary pain to other humans. We should treat others as we would wish to be treated. Since only one out of every three humans on earth is a Christian, some theologians and other authors feel that non-religious, neutral terms like CE and BCE would be less offensive to the non-Christian majority.
The term “Christ” is derived from the Greek word for Messiah. Consider an analogous situation: The most recent version of this pledge includes the phrase: Many Christians, particularly from the conservative Protestant wing of that religion, are distressed at the new terms. Some feel that AD and BC have been in use for centuries and that this tradition should be respected. Others see the switch to CE and BCE as just one more example of secularism and non-Christian religions being given precedence over Christianity.
This practice is the result of the secularization, anti-supernaturalism, religious pluralism, and political correctness pervasive in our society.